OWL representation of ISO 19156 (Observation model)

IRI:
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation
Version IRI:
https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/subversion/xmml/ontologies/tags/201311/ISOTC211/HM/observation.rdf
Previous version:
https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/subversion/xmml/ontologies/tags/201305/ISOTC211/HM/observation.rdf (visualise it with LODE)
Authors:
Simon Jonathan David COX CSIRO
Imported Ontologies:
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19103/2005/basic (visualise it with LODE)
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19107/2003/geometry (visualise it with LODE)
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19108/2002/temporal (visualise it with LODE)
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19109/2005/feature (visualise it with LODE)
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19115/2003/metadata (visualise it with LODE)
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19123/2005/coverage (visualise it with LODE)
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19150/-2/2012/basic (visualise it with LODE)
Other visualisation:
Ontology source

Abstract

An OWL representation of the Observation Schema described in clause 6 of ISO 19156:2011 Geographic Information - Observations and Measurements.

The rationale for design decisions made in this implementation, and a comparison with the SSN ontology, was presented in a paper at the 6th International Semantic Sensor Web workshop, Sydney, 2013-10-21.

This vocabulary is provisional, pending finalization of ISO 19150-2.

NOTE: The URI stem http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/ is temporary. The vocabulary is expected to be ultimately published in the domain http://def.isotc211.org/

Table of Content

  1. Introduction
  2. Classes
  3. Object Properties
  4. Named Individuals
  5. Annotation Properties
  6. Namespace Declarations

Introduction

An OWL representation of the Observation Schema described in clause 6 of ISO 19156:2011 Geographic Information - Observations and Measurements

Classes

Category Observationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#CategoryObservation

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

Observation whose result is a classification from some vocabulary or taxonomy

has super-classes
basic:FeatureType
Observationc
observation result only owl:Thing

Complex Observationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#ComplexObservation

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

Observation whose result is a vector, record, tuple or other complex value

has super-classes
basic:FeatureType
Observationc

Count Observationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#CountObservation

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

Observation whose result is an integer

has super-classes
basic:FeatureType
Observationc
observation result only xsd:integer

Discrete Coverage Observationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#DiscreteCoverageObservation

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

Observation whose result is a discrete representation of a spatio-temporal field, including images and time-series

has super-classes
basic:FeatureType
Observationc
observation result only coverage:DiscreteCoverage
has sub-classes
Point Coverage Observationc, Time Series Observationc

Geometry Observationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#GeometryObservation

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

Observation whose result is a spatial object or geometry

has super-classes
basic:FeatureType
Observationc
observation result only geometry:Object

Measurementc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#Measurement

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

Observation whose result is a scaled number

has super-classes
basic:FeatureType
Observationc
observation result only basic:

Named valuec back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#NamedValue

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

Typed value

has super-classes
error:Error2315c
named value keyop exactly 1
is in domain of
named value keyop, named value value
is in range of
parameterop

Observationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#Observation

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

An observation is an act associated with a discrete time instant or period through which a number, term or other symbol is assigned to a phenomenon [2]. It involves application of a specified procedure, such as a sensor, instrument, algorithm or process chain. The procedure may be applied in-situ, remotely, or ex-situ with respect to the sampling location. The result of an observation is an estimate of the value of a property of some feature. Use of a common model allows observation data using different procedures to be combined unambiguously.

The observation itself is also a feature, since it has properties and identity.

Observation details are important for data discovery and for data quality estimation.

The observation could be considered to carry “property-level” instance metadata, which complements the dataset-level and feature-level metadata that have been conventionally considered (e.g. ISO 19115).

has super-classes
feature:AnyFeature
basic:FeatureType
error:Error2314c
observation contextop min 0
observation metadataop max 1
result qualityop min 0
feature of interestop exactly 1
phenomenon timeop exactly 1
observation procedureop exactly 1
result timeop exactly 1
valid timeop max 1
observed propertyop exactly 1
has sub-classes
Category Observationc, Complex Observationc, Count Observationc, Discrete Coverage Observationc, Geometry Observationc, Measurementc, Temporal Observationc, Truth Observationc
is in domain of
observation contextop
is in range of
related observationop
is disjoint with
Observation processc

Observation contextc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#ObservationContext

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

Some observations depend on other observations to provide context which is important, sometimes essential, in understanding the result. These dependencies are stronger than mere spatio-temporal coincidences, requiring explicit representation. If present, the association class class ObservationContext (Figure 2) shall link a OM_Observation to another OM_Observation, with the role name relatedObservation for the target. It shall support one attribute.

EXAMPLES Some examples include the conditions associated with experimental replicates (e.g., experimental plots and treatments used), biotic factors (e.g., ecological community), interactions among features (e.g., predator-prey), or other temporary relationships occurring at the time of observation that are are not inherent to the observed features themselves (i.e., they change over time), or the related observation may provide input to a process that generates a new result.

This association complements the Intention association which describes relationships between a sampling feature and domain features.

is equivalent to
related observationop exactly 1
roleop exactly 1
has super-classes
owl:Thing
is in domain of
roleop
is in range of
observation contextop

Observation processc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#Process

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

The class OM_Process (Figure 2) is an instance of the «metaclass» GF_FeatureType (ISO 19109:2005), which therefore represents a feature type. OM_Process is abstract, and has no attributes, operations or associations. It serves as the base class for observation processes. The purpose of an observation process is to generate an observation result. An instance of OM_Process is often an instrument or sensor, but may be a human observer, a simulator, or a process or algorithm applied to more primitive results used as inputs.

NOTE ISO 19115-2:2008 provides MI_Instrument, LE_Processing and LE_Algorithm, which could all be modelled as specializations of OM_Process. OGC SensorML [10] provides a model which is suitable for many observation procedures.

has super-classes
feature:AnyFeature
basic:FeatureType
is in range of
observation procedureop
is disjoint with
Observationc

Point Coverage Observationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#PointCoverageObservation

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

Observation whose result is a spatio-temporal field sampled at discete points

has super-classes
basic:FeatureType
Discrete Coverage Observationc
observation result only coverage:DiscretePointCoverage

Temporal Observationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#TemporalObservation

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

Observation whose result is a temporal object, such as a time instant or period

has super-classes
basic:FeatureType
Observationc
observation result only temporal:Object

Time Series Observationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#TimeSeriesObservation

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

Observation whose result is a time-series

has super-classes
basic:FeatureType
Discrete Coverage Observationc
observation result only coverage:DiscreteTimeInstantCoverage

Truth Observationc back to ToC or Class ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#TruthObservation

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

Observation whose result is either true or false

has super-classes
basic:FeatureType
Observationc
observation result only xsd:boolean

Object Properties

feature of interestop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#featureOfInterest

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

feature of interest of an observation

has domain
feature:AnyFeature
has range
feature:AnyFeature

named value keyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#name

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

key indicating the type of a named value

has domain
Named valuec

observation contextop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#observationContext

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

This property is named 'relatedObservation' in the XML implementation. The rule for association classes needs clarification.

has domain
Observationc
has range
Observation contextc

observation metadataop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#metadata

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

generic metadata about an observation

has domain
feature:AnyFeature
has range
metadata:Metadata

observation procedureop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#procedure

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

procedure used in making observation. Typically a sensor or sensor-system, algorithm, computational procedure.

has domain
feature:AnyFeature
has range
Observation processc

observed propertyop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#observedProperty

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

property whose value is the result of the observation

has domain
feature:AnyFeature

parameterop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#parameter

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

observation-specific parameter not accommodated by the standard observation properties. Often used to record environmental parameters

has domain
feature:AnyFeature
has range
Named valuec

phenomenon timeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#phenomenonTime

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

time at which the estimate of the property that is the result of the observation is associated with the feature of interest

has domain
feature:AnyFeature
has range
temporal:Object

related observationop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#relatedObservation

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

related observation

has domain
owl:Thing
has range
Observationc

result qualityop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#resultQuality

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

assessment of the quality of the observation result. The value should be specific to this observation instance, in addition to any quality that is inferred from the observation procedure used

has domain
feature:AnyFeature
has range
dataquality:Element

result timeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#resultTime

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

time at which the result became available, after all processing steps were completed

has domain
feature:AnyFeature
has range
temporal:Instant

roleop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#role

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

role of related observation with respect to the observation of interest

valid timeop back to ToC or Object Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#validTime

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

time during which the observation result is recommended for use. Most often used in relation to forecasts, but may be used any time the observation procedure (including inputs) is liable to modification.

has domain
feature:AnyFeature
has range
temporal:Period

Named Individuals

2011:observationni back to ToC or Named Individual ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

belongs to
voaf:Vocabulary

Annotation Properties

named value valueap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#value

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

value of named value

has domain
Named valuec

observation resultap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#result

is defined by
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation

estimate of the value of the observed property

has domain
feature:AnyFeature

skos:definitionap back to ToC or Annotation Property ToC

IRI: http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#definition

Namespace Declarations back to ToC

default namespace
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#
2002
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19108/2002/
2003
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19107/2003/
2005
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19103/2005/
2011
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/
2012
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19150/-2/2012/
basic
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19150/-2/2012/basic#
coverage
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19123/2005/coverage#
dataquality
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19115/2003/dataquality#
dc
http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/
drshorthair
http://www.slideshare.net/drshorthair/
error
http://org.semanticweb.owlapi/error#
feature
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19109/2005/feature#
geometry
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19107/2003/geometry#
hm
https://www.seegrid.csiro.au/subversion/xmml/ontologies/tags/201305/ISOTC211/HM/
metadata
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19115/2003/metadata#
observation
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19156/2011/observation#
owl
http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#
rdf
http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#
rdfs
http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#
skos
http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#
temporal
http://def.seegrid.csiro.au/isotc211/iso19108/2002/temporal#
terms
http://purl.org/dc/terms/
vann
http://purl.org/vocab/vann/
voaf
http://purl.org/vocommons/voaf#
vol-1063
http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1063/
xsd
http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#

This HTML document was obtained by processing the OWL ontology source code through LODE, Live OWL Documentation Environment, developed by Silvio Peroni.